Pharmacologic rationale, efficacy and safety of the fixed-dose co-formulation of indacaterol and glycopyrronium
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a widespread respiratory disorder, usually characterized by progressive and poorly reversible airflow limitation. Inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, namely LABA (long-acting β2-adrenergic agonists) and LAMA (long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists) are the mainstay of COPD treatment. Because the symptoms of many patients with COPD do not satisfactorily improve by using a single, either LABA or LAMA bronchodilator, the synergism of action resulting from the combination of the different bronchodilating mechanisms activated by LABA and LAMA, respectively, can significantly contribute to a better disease control. Based on these clinical and pharmacological considerations, several LABA/LAMA fixed-dose combinations have been developed and experimentally evaluated. Within such a context, the drug co-formulation containing indacaterol and glycopyrronium is probably the LABA/LAMA association which has been most extensively studied during the last few years.
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