Outcomes of patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Infections (SARI) admitted to the intensive care unit: Results from the Egyptian Surveillance Study 2010-2014
Background: Few data exist for respiratory viral infections in Egyptian patients. We describe the outcomes of hospitalized Egyptian patients with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) admitted to the ICU. Methods: A prospective study in which all hospitalized patients meeting the WHO case definition for SARI and admitted to the ICU, during the period 2010–2014, were enrolled. Samples were tested using RT-PCR for influenza A, B, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus (hMPV), parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, bocavirus, enterovirus, and rhinovirus. Data were analyzed to study the clinical features of SARI-ICU patients and which pathogens are related to severe outcomes. Associated comorbidities were evaluated using Charlson Age-Comorbidity Index (CACI). Results: Of 1075 patients with SARI, 219 (20.3%) were admitted to the ICU. The highest rates were reported for RSV (37%). SARI-ICU patients had higher rates of hospital stay, pneumonia, respiratory failure, ARDS, and mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified associated respiratory disorders (p=0.001), radiological abnormalities (p=0.023), and longer hospital stay (p=0.005) as risk factors for severe outcomes. Conclusions: This surveillance study showed that 20% of hospitalized Egyptian patients with viral SARI needed ICU admission. SARI-ICU patients had higher rates of hospital stay, pneumonia, respiratory failure, ARDS, and mortality. Higher comorbidity index scores, radiological abnormalities, and longer hospital stay are risk factors for severe outcomes in SARI-ICU patients in our locality.
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