Immunostimulants in respiratory diseases: focus on Pidotimod

  • Francesca Puggioni | francesca.puggioni@humanitas.it Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele (MI); Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
  • Magna Alves-Correia Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy; Central Hospital of Funchal, SESARAM, EPE, Madeira, Portugal.
  • Manar-Farouk Mohamed Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano; Ain Shams University, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo, Egypt.
  • Niccolò Stomeo Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milano, Italy.
  • Riccardo Mager Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milano, Italy.
  • Massimiliano Marinoni Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, Milano, Italy.
  • Francesca Racca Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
  • Giovanni Paoletti Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele (MI); Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
  • Gilda Varricchi Department of Translational Medical Sciences and Center for Basic and Clinical Immunology Research, University of Naples Federico II, Naples, Italy.
  • Veronica Giorgis Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
  • Giovanni Melioli Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, (MI); Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
  • Giorgio Walter Canonica Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, (MI); Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.
  • Enrico Heffler Department of Biomedical Sciences, Humanitas University, Pieve Emanuele, (MI); Personalized Medicine, Allergy and Asthma - Humanitas Clinical and Research Center – IRCCS, Milano, Italy.

Abstract

Usefulness of Pidotimod and its role as immunostimulant, has been discussed, we know, for several decades. Nevertheless, there is still much to know. Understanding its mechanisms and its potential usefulness in airway infections and its prevention, asthma both Th2 and non Th2 type, bronchiectasis, as adjuvant in vaccination and in allergen immunotherapy still remains to clearly unveil. The aim of this paper was to provide a useful updated review of the role of the main available immunostimulants, giving particular focus on Pidotimod use and its potentials utility in respiratory diseases. Pidotimod showed its usefulness in reducing need for antibiotics in airway infections, increasing the level of immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG) and T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3+, CD4+) endowed with immunomodulatory activity that affect both innate and adaptive immune responses. Higher expression of TLR2 and of HLA-DR molecules, induction of dendritic cell maturation and release of pro-inflammatory molecules, stimulation of T lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation toward a Th1 phenotype, as well as an increase of the phagocytosis have been demonstrated to be associated with Pidotimod in in vitro studies. All these activities are potentially useful for several respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD, and recurrent respiratory tract infections.

Dimensions

Altmetric

PlumX Metrics

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Published
2019-10-21
Info
Issue
Section
Reviews
Keywords:
Pidotimod, Immumostimulants, Respiratory diseases, Adaptive immunity, Innate immunity, Allergy, Asthma, Chronic obstructive lung disease
Statistics
  • Abstract views: 711

  • PDF: 106
  • HTML: 19
How to Cite
Puggioni, F., Alves-Correia, M., Mohamed, M.-F., Stomeo, N., Mager, R., Marinoni, M., Racca, F., Paoletti, G., Varricchi, G., Giorgis, V., Melioli, G., Canonica, G. W., & Heffler, E. (2019). Immunostimulants in respiratory diseases: focus on Pidotimod. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.4081/mrm.2019.50