Respiratory symptoms and associated risk factors among under-five children in Northwest Ethiopia: community based cross-sectional study
Introduction: Acute respiratory infections are still a major public health problem resulting in morbidity and mortality among under-five children. This study aims to assess the extent of respiratory symptoms and associated risk factors among under-five children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia.
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to June 2019. From 792 study participants, data were collected via face to face interviews by using a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered in Epi Info version 7 then exported to Stata 14.00 for analysis. Binary (Bivariable and Multivariable) logistic regression analysis was used to test the association of explanatory and outcome variables. Variables with p<0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcome variable.
Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among under-five children was 37.5% at [95% (CI: 34.3-41)]. Uterine irritability during pregnancy [AOR = 1.89 at 95% CI: (1.11-3.23)], physical exercise during pregnancy [AOR = 0.60 at 95% CI: (0.41-0.89)], using wood and coal for heating [AOR = 2.42 at 95% CI: (1.65-3.53)], cockroaches infestation [AOR = 1.95 at 95% CI: (1.36 – 2.90)], presence of new carpets [AOR = 2.38 at 95% CI: (1.33-4.29)], damp stain [AOR = 2.45 at 95% CI: (1.02-2.69)], opening windows during cooking [AOR = 0.58 at 95% CI: (0.36 - 0 .93)], living less than 100 m heavy traffic [AOR = 1.94 at 95% CI: (1.16-3.27)], and living less than 100 m (unpaved roads/streets) [AOR= 2.89 at 95% CI: (1.89-4.55)] were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms.
Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among under-five children was relatively high in the study area. Personal and environmental characteristics influencing symptom occurrence were identified. Respiratory symptoms will be minimized by reducing exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution and enhancing housing quality.
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