Respiratory symptoms and associated risk factors among under-five children in Northwest Ethiopia: community based cross-sectional study

  • Zewudu Andualem | zewuduandualem12@gmail.com Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Safety Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-4731-1696
  • Asefa Adimasu Taddese Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia.
  • Zelalem Nigussie Azene Department of Women’s and Family Health, School of Midwifery, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-3511-7562
  • Jember Azanaw Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Safety Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia.
  • Henok Dagne Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Safety Institute of Public Health, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Ethiopia. https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7161-0904

Abstract

Introduction: Acute respiratory infections are still a major public health problem resulting in morbidity and mortality among under-five children. This study aims to assess the extent of respiratory symptoms and associated risk factors among under-five children in Gondar city, Northwest Ethiopia. 
Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to June 2019. From 792 study participants, data were collected via face to face interviews by using a semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. Data were entered in Epi Info version 7 then exported to Stata 14.00 for analysis. Binary (Bivariable and Multivariable) logistic regression analysis was used to test the association of explanatory and outcome variables. Variables with p<0.05 were considered as significantly associated with the outcome variable.
Results: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among under-five children was 37.5% at [95% (CI: 34.3-41)]. Uterine irritability during pregnancy [AOR = 1.89 at 95% CI: (1.11-3.23)], physical exercise during pregnancy [AOR = 0.60 at 95% CI: (0.41-0.89)], using wood and coal for heating [AOR = 2.42 at 95% CI: (1.65-3.53)], cockroaches infestation [AOR = 1.95 at 95% CI: (1.36 – 2.90)], presence of new carpets [AOR = 2.38 at 95% CI: (1.33-4.29)], damp stain [AOR = 2.45 at 95% CI: (1.02-2.69)], opening windows during cooking [AOR = 0.58 at 95% CI: (0.36 - 0 .93)], living less than 100 m heavy traffic [AOR = 1.94 at 95% CI: (1.16-3.27)], and living less than 100 m (unpaved roads/streets) [AOR= 2.89 at 95% CI: (1.89-4.55)] were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms.
Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory symptoms among under-five children was relatively high in the study area. Personal and environmental characteristics influencing symptom occurrence were identified. Respiratory symptoms will be minimized by reducing exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollution and enhancing housing quality.

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Published
2020-10-02
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Original Research Articles
Keywords:
Air pollution, respiratory symptoms, cross-sectional study, under-five children, Ethiopia
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How to Cite
Andualem, Z., Taddese, A. A., Azene, Z. N., Azanaw, J., & Dagne, H. (2020). Respiratory symptoms and associated risk factors among under-five children in Northwest Ethiopia: community based cross-sectional study. Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine, 15. https://doi.org/10.4081/mrm.2020.685