Preemptive non-selective bronchial artery angioembolization to reduce recurrence rate of hemoptysis
Background: Massive hemoptysis which is presented in advanced lung diseases is a life-threatening condition. Bronchial artery embolization as a minimally invasive procedure is the treatment of choice either in first or recurrent hemoptysis. This study aimed to assess the early and late efficacy of bronchial angioembolization (BAE) without microcatheter.
Methods: In this prospective cohort study, all patients with hemoptysis who had undergone BAE from August 2018 to March 2019 were included. Angiographic patterns including bleeding sources, number of involved vessels, the underlying etiology, and recurrence rate were evaluated in a one-year follow-up.
Results: 153 patients were included with mean age of 55 ±16 years. 68% of them were male and 58% had life-threatening massive hemoptysis. Three distinct angiographic patterns were recognized. The culprit bleeding vessel was bronchial in 126 (92%), intercostal in 4 (3%), and both vessels in 7 (5%) of cases (P<0.05). One vessel involvement was seen in 56 patients; however it was observed in 69% of non-cystic fibrosis lobar bronchiectasis patients. In 1, 3 and 12 months follow up, recurrent hemoptysis was reported in 15 (11%), 4 (2.5%), and 24 (15.5%), respectively. In 52% of cases, no abnormal vessels were observed during aorta injection, but culprit bronchial or intercostal arteries were found in selective investigational angiography.
Conclusion: BAE was successful in the control of hemoptysis and resulted in a low rate of recurrence in different types of lung diseases. This could be due to the embolization of all pathological arteries found during angiography which might have prevented recurrent bleeding.
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