Prevalence and factors correlated with hypertension secondary from obstructive sleep apnea
Background: In 2003, the JNC 7 reported obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as a cause of secondary hypertension. The prevalence of OSA in hypertension ranges from 30-80%. There are limited data on the prevalence and risk factors of OSA in hypertensive patients. This study thus aimed to evaluate prevalence and clinical predictors of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in these patients.
Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and conducted at the hypertension clinic at Khon Kaen University’s Srinagarind Hospital, Thailand. We enrolled patients with hypertension treated at the clinic. OSA was defined as apnea-hypopnea index of 5 events/hour or over according to cardiopulmonary monitoring. Patients whose hypertension was due to any other causes were excluded. The prevalence of OSA was calculated and risk factors for OSA were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression.
Results: There were 726 hypertensive patients treated at the clinic. Of those, 253 (34.8%) were randomly studied and categorized as either non-OSA (147 patients, 58.1%) or OSA (106 patients, 41.9%). There were four independent factors associated with OSA-induced hypertension: age, sex, history of snoring, and history of headache. Headache had an adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 3.564 (95% confidence interval of 1.510, 8.411).
Conclusion: Age, male sex, history of snoring, and headache were independent predictors of hypertension caused by OSA.
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